If you’re curious about Ayurveda you’ve probably heard that Vata, Pitta and Kapha are the three main doshas, or humors, in the body. The doshas are dynamic energies; they constantly change, like our moods, in response to our emotions, thoughts, actions, the food we eat, the seasons we’re in and other sensory inputs that feed our mind and body. Respectively, Prana, Tejas and Ojas are the more subtle forms of these three doshas, which have an influence in the mind. Similarly, the same things that disturb the doshas can also disturb these mental forms. Let’s take a closer look at them.
Prana is the mental form of Vata, our life force and the breath of life. It is the flow of intelligence at a cellular level, the communication between each cell that holds our organism together. Prana gives us inspiration and positivity; the will to live, grow and heal ourselves, and connects us with our inner self. When Prana is still, we experience pure blissful awareness.
For the body and mind to be in balance, we need just the right amount of Prana.
When there is too much Prana flowing in the body, one may suffer loss of mental control, and sensory and motor coordination; it may predisposes us to learning and behavioral problems such as ADHD; as well as feeling ungrounded, stressed and alienated, affecting our sense of identity. When there is too little Prana, we may suffer lack of mental energy, enthusiasm and curiosity, and may feel that our receptivity and creativity are inhibited. Restricted Prana makes our mind and senses dull and heavy, there is lack of motivation, and attitudes that can become conservative and rigid.
Tejas is the mental form of Pitta, the fire of the mind. At the level of the cell it is cellular intelligence. It promotes intelligence, reason, passion to learn, focus, self-discipline, perception and mental clarity. When there is too much Tejas in the mind, we become overly critical and discriminating; we experience doubt, anger, irritability and enmity. One can be hard to please and prone to temper tantrums. When there is too little Tejas, it causes inability to enquire or discern, accepting things uncritically and losing the power to learn from experience. It can also cause us to be passive and impressionable, overly influenced by others; we may lack purpose and lose direction.
Ojas is the mental form of Kapha: the essential vital fluid of the body in subtle form in the mind. It promotes mental strength, stability, endurance, patience, calmness, good memory and sustained concentration, happiness, contentment and bliss. It connects our physical, mental, and spiritual well-being and is essentially our peace of mind. It is regenerated through meditation. Too little Ojas makes us fearful, weak, worry; we may suffer lack of confidence, difficulty concentrating, as well as poor memory. Nervous exhaustion can develop. Too much Ojas can cause heaviness and dullness in the mind; complacency and unwillingness to change or grow. High Ojas is much less a problem than excess Prana or Tejas, which are the main factors in mental disorders.
Prana, Tejas and Ojas control Vata, Pitta and Kapha in the body.
On the negative side, the use of drugs, whether they are medicinal or recreational, is a factor that causes imbalances of Prana, Tejas and Ojas. Excess exposure to mass-media, televisions or computers, overly strong sensations, and overly bright colors, loud noise, and stress can reduce these subtle qualities. Excess or pretended emotions also affect the balance of these three subtle forms.
On the positive side, factors that balance them include meditation, prayer, self-study, deep sleep and relaxation. Aromatherapy, the right use of colors, aromas, and gems are other strategies that Ayurveda uses to heal at the subtle levels. Pranayama (breathing exercises) is another great practise, but excess breathing can also aggravate Prana. The best way to balance Prana is by spending time in nature and commune with virtues such as: faith, love, receptivity, compassion and understanding.
I encourage you to take a few minutes in silence with yourself and reflect on this article. Choose one of the strategies mentioned above that resonates with you, then be creative and plan how you can apply it in your daily life. Feel free to share your experience, or comments in the space below.
This article is an excerpt from the chapter on “Pranayama, Asanas and Meditation” in Nathalie Keiller’s Ayurvedic Training: From Theory to Daily Practice.